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看國外 | 外國專家眼中的中國非瘟:一場人爲災難

  • 來源:WATTAgNet、愛豬網
  • 日期:2019-08-02
  • 編輯:admin
  • 評論:0

圖:RGtimeline | Bigstock.com

 

Poor biosecurity practices, not disease virulence, are to blame for size of Chinese outbreak, scientists say.

 

科學家們表示,中國非瘟疫情的規模應歸咎于糟糕的生物安全措施,而非疾病毒性。

 

Researchers long suspected that if African swine fever (ASF) reached China, the world would face an outbreak the likes of which it had never seen before.

 

長期以來,研究人員一直懷疑,如果非洲豬瘟(ASF)蔓延到中國,世界將面臨前所未有的疫情。

 

Despite the headlines, ASF isn’t a particularly contagious disease. Yes, it’s capable of surviving outside a host much longer than most viruses — giving it an ability to remain virulent even after traveling long distances. But on the whole, it doesn’t spread nearly as quickly as other animal diseases such as avian influenza, and small outbreaks have occurred in Africa and across Europe throughout history. 

 

盡管經常上頭條新聞,非洲豬瘟並不是一種特別具有傳染性的疾病。是的,它在宿主外存活的時間比大多數病毒都要長,這使得它即使在長途旅行後也能保持毒性。但總的來說,它的傳播速度遠不及禽流感等其他動物疾病,曆史上在非洲和整個歐洲也曾發生過小規模疫情。

 

Researchers suspect that human-caused risk factors such as high pig density and poor biosecurity practices ultimately laid the groundwork for today’s large-scale outbreak of ASF.

 

研究人員懷疑,人類引起的危險因素,如高豬群密度和糟糕的生物安全措施,最終爲今天非洲豬瘟的大規模爆發奠定了基礎。

 

“We had actually predicted in 2017 that China’s high pig density represented a high risk for a major ASF outbreak to occur,” said Dirk Pfeiffer who, alongside his colleagues, outlined the risk for an outbreak of ASF in China and Vietnam in the journal Veterinary Record. “It was just a matter of time.”

 

Dirk Pfeiffer和他的同事曾在《獸醫記錄》(Veterinary Record)雜志上概述了ASF在中國和越南爆發的風險,他提到“其實2017年我們就曾預測過,中國的高密度生豬養殖將是爆發非洲豬瘟的高風險因素”,“這只是時間問題” 。

 

Unlike influenza, ASF is not airborne and doesn’t spread particularly easily — infected pigs don’t become contagious for a week, sometimes longer, after they’ve begun to show symptoms. But ASF persists in the environment for months, and even a small amount of virus can result in illness. Consequently, the virus can be difficult to manage if the disease is not detected, and the infected pigs culled, soon after an outbreak is first detected.

 

不同于流感,非洲豬瘟不會通過空氣傳播,也不容易傳播——受感染的豬在開始出現症狀後一周內不會具有傳染性,有時甚至更長時間。但是非瘟病毒能在環境中持續數月,即使是少量的病毒也能致病。因此,如果沒有早發現,並在首次發現疫情不久就撲殺受感染的豬,那麽這種病毒就很難控制。

 

In Africa, where the virus is endemic, outbreaks of ASF typically occur in small pockets that are relatively easy to contain, because that continent’s pig farms tend to be smaller and more widely dispersed. Across Europe, an emphasis on biosecurity measures to control ASF eventually stopped the disease, though it took decades to eradicate ASF entirely.

 

在非瘟病毒流行的非洲,非瘟暴發通常發生在相對容易控制的小區域,因爲非洲大陸的養豬場往往規模較小,分布更廣。在整個歐洲,對控制非瘟的生物安全措施的重視最終阻止了這種疾病,盡管徹底根除非瘟花了數十年的時間。

 

Perfect storm of risk factors

 

風險因素的風暴中心

 

But China is a perfect storm of risk factors, according to Pfeiffer, director of the Center for Applied One Health Research and Policy Advice at the City University of Hong Kong. The country contains nearly half of the globe’s swine population, producing the high densities that enable the virus to spread. But the majority of these pigs are raised on small farms of less than 100 pigs each, he said, where biosecurity may be less stringent.

 

Pfeiffer表示,中國是一個充滿風險因素的風暴中心。這個國家擁有全球近一半的豬群,其密度之高使得病毒得以傳播。但是,他說,這些豬中的大多數是在不足100頭的小豬場裏飼養的,這些豬場的生物安全可能不那麽嚴格。

 

To complicate matters, China’s pork industry was on the cusp of industrialization, and farmers had begun shipping swine long distances to slaughterhouses thousands of miles away. All it took to kick off a major outbreak, Pfeiffer said, was the introduction of some contaminated pork product, feed or even equipment to enter China from Russia, where the genotype responsible for this current outbreak was already present.

 

更複雜的是,中國的豬肉工業正處于工業化的風口浪尖,養殖戶把豬運到千裏之外的屠宰場。Pfeiffer說,只要從俄羅斯引進一些受汙染的豬肉産品、飼料,甚至是設備,就能引發一場大規模的疫情。俄羅斯已經出現了導致這次疫情爆發的基因型。

 

Given these circumstances, Pfeiffer believes it will take more than a vaccine to bring ASF under control.

 

考慮到這些情況,Pfeiffer認爲控制非瘟需要的不僅僅是疫苗。

 

“We would not be able to achieve sufficiently high vaccination coverage to result in eradication of the ASF virus,” he said. “We will still need enhanced biosecurity measures and behaviors to be adopted by pig farmers, and it is unlikely that small farms in low- to middle-income countries will do that, for economic and socio-cultural reasons.”

 

他說:“我們無法實現足夠高的疫苗覆蓋率,以根除非瘟病毒。”“我們仍然需要加強養豬戶的生物安全措施和行爲,而由于經濟和社會文化原因,中低收入國家的小型養豬場不太可能做到這一點。”

 

Eradicating the virus in China will require action not only from farmers, but from “millions of stakeholders involved in the pork value chain.” Chinese pig farms will likely become larger and begin to look much more like operations in the U.S. and Europe. But feed manufacturers, truckers and slaughterhouses will also have to reconsider their biosecurity protocol, he said.

 

要在中國根除這種病毒,不僅需要養殖戶采取行動,還需要“涉及豬肉價值鏈的數百萬利益攸關方”一起行動。他說:“中國養豬場很可能會變得更大,看起來更像美國和歐洲的豬場。但飼料制造商、卡車司機和屠宰場也將不得不重新考慮他們的生物安全協議。”

 

“The biosecurity issue is not just about farms,” Pfeiffer said. “It is also about slaughterhouses and pig transport vehicles, which need to be cleaned much better, and if food waste is used as pig feed, it needs to be properly heat treated. So, if you take that altogether, it is quite a tough task to make all those biosecurity changes in the pork food system.”

 

“生物安全問題不僅僅與農場有關,”Pfeiffer說。“這還涉及屠宰場和生豬運輸車輛,它們需要更好地清潔。如果食品垃圾被用作生豬飼料,就需要進行適當的熱處理。所以,如果把這些都考慮進去,要對豬肉食品系統進行所有這些生物安全方面的改革是一項相當艱巨的任務。”

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